Skip to main content

WebView2

介绍

Introduction

下面将介绍如何在 Microsoft Edge WebView2 上使用 Playwright。WebView2 是一个 WinForms 控件,它将在底层使用 Microsoft Edge 来渲染 Web 内容。它是 Microsoft Edge 浏览器的一部分,可在 Windows 10 和 Windows 11 上使用。Playwright 可用于自动化 WebView2 应用,并可用于测试 WebView2 中的 Web 内容。为了连接到 WebView2,Playwright 使用 browserType.connectOverCDP(),它通过 Chrome DevTools 协议 (CDP) 连接到它。

The following will explain how to use Playwright with Microsoft Edge WebView2. WebView2 is a WinForms control, which will use Microsoft Edge under the hood to render web content. It is a part of the Microsoft Edge browser and is available on Windows 10 and Windows 11. Playwright can be used to automate WebView2 applications and can be used to test web content in WebView2. For connecting to WebView2, Playwright uses browserType.connectOverCDP() which connects to it via the Chrome DevTools Protocol (CDP).

概述

Overview

通过使用 --remote-debugging-port=9222 设置 WEBVIEW2_ADDITIONAL_BROWSER_ARGUMENTS 环境变量或使用 --remote-debugging-port=9222 参数调用 确保 CoreWebView2Async,可以指示 WebView2 控件监听传入的 CDP 连接。这将在启用 Chrome DevTools 协议的情况下启动 WebView2 进程,该协议允许 Playwright 进行自动化。9222 是本例中的示例端口,但也可以使用任何其他未使用的端口。

A WebView2 control can be instructed to listen to incoming CDP connections by setting either the WEBVIEW2_ADDITIONAL_BROWSER_ARGUMENTS environment variable with --remote-debugging-port=9222 or calling EnsureCoreWebView2Async with the --remote-debugging-port=9222 argument. This will start the WebView2 process with the Chrome DevTools Protocol enabled which allows the automation by Playwright. 9222 is an example port in this case, but any other unused port can be used as well.

await this.webView.EnsureCoreWebView2Async(await CoreWebView2Environment.CreateAsync(null, null, new CoreWebView2EnvironmentOptions()
{
AdditionalBrowserArguments = "--remote-debugging-port=9222",
})).ConfigureAwait(false);

一旦带有 WebView2 控件的应用运行,你就可以通过 Playwright 连接到它:

Once your application with the WebView2 control is running, you can connect to it via Playwright:

const browser = await playwright.chromium.connectOverCDP('http://localhost:9222');
const context = browser.contexts()[0];
const page = context.pages()[0];

为了确保 WebView2 控件准备就绪,可以等待 CoreWebView2InitializationCompleted 事件:

To ensure that the WebView2 control is ready, you can wait for the CoreWebView2InitializationCompleted event:

this.webView.CoreWebView2InitializationCompleted += (_, e) =>
{
if (e.IsSuccess)
{
Console.WriteLine("WebView2 initialized");
}
};

编写和运行测试

Writing and running tests

默认情况下,WebView2 控件将为所有实例使用相同的用户数据目录。这意味着如果你并行运行多个测试,它们将相互干扰。为了避免这种情况,你应该为每个测试将 WEBVIEW2_USER_DATA_FOLDER 环境变量(或使用 WebView2.EnsureCoreWebView2Async 方法)设置到不同的文件夹。这将确保每个测试在其自己的用户数据目录中运行。

By default, the WebView2 control will use the same user data directory for all instances. This means that if you run multiple tests in parallel, they will interfere with each other. To avoid this, you should set the WEBVIEW2_USER_DATA_FOLDER environment variable (or use WebView2.EnsureCoreWebView2Async Method) to a different folder for each test. This will make sure that each test runs in its own user data directory.

使用以下内容,Playwright 将作为子进程运行你的 WebView2 应用,为其分配唯一的用户数据目录,并为你的测试提供 页面 实例:

Using the following, Playwright will run your WebView2 application as a sub-process, assign a unique user data directory to it and provide the Page instance to your test:

webView2Test.ts
import { test as base } from '@playwright/test';
import fs from 'fs';
import os from 'os';
import path from 'path';
import childProcess from 'child_process';

const EXECUTABLE_PATH = path.join(
__dirname,
'../../webview2-app/bin/Debug/net8.0-windows/webview2.exe',
);

export const test = base.extend({
browser: async ({ playwright }, use, testInfo) => {
const cdpPort = 10000 + testInfo.workerIndex;
// Make sure that the executable exists and is executable
fs.accessSync(EXECUTABLE_PATH, fs.constants.X_OK);
const userDataDir = path.join(
fs.realpathSync.native(os.tmpdir()),
`playwright-webview2-tests/user-data-dir-${testInfo.workerIndex}`,
);
const webView2Process = childProcess.spawn(EXECUTABLE_PATH, [], {
shell: true,
env: {
...process.env,
WEBVIEW2_ADDITIONAL_BROWSER_ARGUMENTS: `--remote-debugging-port=${cdpPort}`,
WEBVIEW2_USER_DATA_FOLDER: userDataDir,
}
});
await new Promise<void>(resolve => webView2Process.stdout.on('data', data => {
if (data.toString().includes('WebView2 initialized'))
resolve();
}));
const browser = await playwright.chromium.connectOverCDP(`http://127.0.0.1:${cdpPort}`);
await use(browser);
await browser.close();
childProcess.execSync(`taskkill /pid ${webView2Process.pid} /T /F`);
fs.rmdirSync(userDataDir, { recursive: true });
},
context: async ({ browser }, use) => {
const context = browser.contexts()[0];
await use(context);
},
page: async ({ context }, use) => {
const page = context.pages()[0];
await use(page);
},
});

export { expect } from '@playwright/test';
example.spec.ts
import { test, expect } from './webView2Test';

test('test WebView2', async ({ page }) => {
await page.goto('https://playwright.nodejs.cn');
const getStarted = page.getByText('Get Started');
await expect(getStarted).toBeVisible();
});

调试

Debugging

在 webview2 控件内,你只需右键单击即可打开上下文菜单,然后选择 "检查" 打开 DevTools 或按 F12。你还可以使用 WebView2.CoreWebView2.OpenDevToolsWindow 方法以编程方式打开 DevTools。

Inside your webview2 control, you can just right-click to open the context menu and select "Inspect" to open the DevTools or press F12. You can also use the WebView2.CoreWebView2.OpenDevToolsWindow method to open the DevTools programmatically.

有关调试测试,请参阅 Playwright 调试指南

For debugging tests, see the Playwright Debugging guide.