Skip to main content

视觉比较

介绍

Introduction

Playwright 测试包括使用 await expect(page).toHaveScreenshot() 生成和直观比较屏幕截图的能力。首次执行时,Playwright 测试将生成参考屏幕截图。后续运行将与参考进行比较。

Playwright Test includes the ability to produce and visually compare screenshots using await expect(page).toHaveScreenshot(). On first execution, Playwright test will generate reference screenshots. Subsequent runs will compare against the reference.

example.spec.ts
import { test, expect } from '@playwright/test';

test('example test', async ({ page }) => {
await page.goto('https://playwright.nodejs.cn');
await expect(page).toHaveScreenshot();
});

生成屏幕截图

Generating screenshots

当你第一次运行上面时,测试运行程序会说:

When you run above for the first time, test runner will say:

Error: A snapshot doesn't exist at example.spec.ts-snapshots/example-test-1-chromium-darwin.png, writing actual.

那是因为还没有黄金档案。该方法获取一堆屏幕截图,直到两个连续的屏幕截图匹配,并将最后一个屏幕截图保存到文件系统。现在已准备好将其添加到存储库中。

That's because there was no golden file yet. This method took a bunch of screenshots until two consecutive screenshots matched, and saved the last screenshot to file system. It is now ready to be added to the repository.

具有黄金期望的文件夹的名称以测试文件的名称开头:

The name of the folder with the golden expectations starts with the name of your test file:

drwxr-xr-x  5 user  group  160 Jun  4 11:46 .
drwxr-xr-x 6 user group 192 Jun 4 11:45 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 user group 231 Jun 4 11:16 example.spec.ts
drwxr-xr-x 3 user group 96 Jun 4 11:46 example.spec.ts-snapshots

快照名称 example-test-1-chromium-darwin.png 由几个部分组成:

The snapshot name example-test-1-chromium-darwin.png consists of a few parts:

  • example-test-1.png - 自动生成的快照名称。或者,你可以指定快照名称作为 toHaveScreenshot() 方法的第一个参数:

    example-test-1.png - an auto-generated name of the snapshot. Alternatively you can specify snapshot name as the first argument of the toHaveScreenshot() method:

    await expect(page).toHaveScreenshot('landing.png');
  • chromium-darwin - 浏览器名称和平台。由于渲染、字体等不同,浏览器和平台之间的屏幕截图有所不同,因此你需要为它们准备不同的快照。如果你在 配置文件 中使用多个项目,将使用项目名称而不是 chromium

    chromium-darwin - the browser name and the platform. Screenshots differ between browsers and platforms due to different rendering, fonts and more, so you will need different snapshots for them. If you use multiple projects in your configuration file, project name will be used instead of chromium.

更新截图

Updating screenshots

有时你需要更新参考屏幕截图,例如当页面发生更改时。使用 --update-snapshots 标志执行此操作。

Sometimes you need to update the reference screenshot, for example when the page has changed. Do this with the --update-snapshots flag.

npx playwright test --update-snapshots

请注意,snapshotName 还接受快照文件的路径段数组,例如 expect().toHaveScreenshot(['relative', 'path', 'to', 'snapshot.png'])。但是,此路径必须保留在每个测试文件(即 a.spec.js-snapshots)的快照目录中,否则会抛出异常。

Note that snapshotName also accepts an array of path segments to the snapshot file such as expect().toHaveScreenshot(['relative', 'path', 'to', 'snapshot.png']). However, this path must stay within the snapshots directory for each test file (i.e. a.spec.js-snapshots), otherwise it will throw.

选项

Options

maxDiffPixels

Playwright Test 使用 pixelmatch 库。你可以通过 通过各种选项 来修改其行为:

Playwright Test uses the pixelmatch library. You can pass various options to modify its behavior:

example.spec.ts
import { test, expect } from '@playwright/test';

test('example test', async ({ page }) => {
await page.goto('https://playwright.nodejs.cn');
await expect(page).toHaveScreenshot({ maxDiffPixels: 100 });
});

如果你想在项目中的所有测试之间共享默认值,你可以在全局或每个项目的 playwright 配置中指定它:

If you'd like to share the default value among all the tests in the project, you can specify it in the playwright config, either globally or per project:

playwright.config.ts
import { defineConfig } from '@playwright/test';
export default defineConfig({
expect: {
toHaveScreenshot: { maxDiffPixels: 100 },
},
});

stylePath

你可以在截屏时将自定义样式表应用到页面。这允许过滤掉动态或易失性元素,从而提高屏幕截图的确定性。

You can apply a custom stylesheet to your page while taking screenshot. This allows filtering out dynamic or volatile elements, hence improving the screenshot determinism.

screenshot.css
iframe {
visibility: hidden;
}
example.spec.ts
import { test, expect } from '@playwright/test';

test('example test', async ({ page }) => {
await page.goto('https://playwright.nodejs.cn');
await expect(page).toHaveScreenshot({ stylePath: path.join(__dirname, 'screenshot.css') });
});

如果你想在项目中的所有测试之间共享默认值,你可以在全局或每个项目的 playwright 配置中指定它:

If you'd like to share the default value among all the tests in the project, you can specify it in the playwright config, either globally or per project:

playwright.config.ts
import { defineConfig } from '@playwright/test';
export default defineConfig({
expect: {
toHaveScreenshot: {
stylePath: './screenshot.css'
},
},
});

非图片快照

Non-image snapshots

除了屏幕截图之外,你还可以使用 expect(value).toMatchSnapshot(snapshotName) 来比较文本或任意二进制数据。Playwright Test 自动检测内容类型并使用适当的比较算法。

Apart from screenshots, you can use expect(value).toMatchSnapshot(snapshotName) to compare text or arbitrary binary data. Playwright Test auto-detects the content type and uses the appropriate comparison algorithm.

在这里,我们将文本内容与参考进行比较。

Here we compare text content against the reference.

example.spec.ts
import { test, expect } from '@playwright/test';

test('example test', async ({ page }) => {
await page.goto('https://playwright.nodejs.cn');
expect(await page.textContent('.hero__title')).toMatchSnapshot('hero.txt');
});

快照存储在测试文件旁边的单独目录中。例如,my.spec.ts 文件将生成快照并将其存储在 my.spec.ts-snapshots 目录中。你应该将此目录提交到版本控制(例如 git),并检查对其进行的任何更改。

Snapshots are stored next to the test file, in a separate directory. For example, my.spec.ts file will produce and store snapshots in the my.spec.ts-snapshots directory. You should commit this directory to your version control (e.g. git), and review any changes to it.